b) This letter has very little sound. The sound that b makes is the same as when you open both lips to make a popping sound. Try it! There is zero after sound when producing ‘b’. Say the name Bob or the bib on a baby. Then there is a b that is silent that a student must watch out for. Words such as: bomb thumb dumb lamb climb tomb crumb and limb.

c) k/ck) - The sound of hard c is made placing the tip of the tongue below the bottom front teeth and tightening the middle, top of the tongue to touch the roof of the mouth, then push out the sound that are heard in cat, cow, cute, cup, cap, etc.
Note that ck is a digraph and is found at the end of short vowel words such as:
     lock, lack lick luck tick tock sick sock sack back neck pack black block
     brick trick truck, clack, click, clock, cluck, slick, slack, stick, stock, stuck
Not to discourage you ‘but’ the letter c as in scent ascend descent abscess and disciple are all silent. I’ll explain why in my explanation of Hard and Soft Sounds of C and G, when I teach the letter ‘g’.

d) The sound of d is similar to the letter b, except the tongue is placed to the roof of the mouth and the lips are wide apart. Say the word dog dig dot Don ding/dong, then cod nod sod Rod Todd, etc. Then there are words like Wednesday. The first d in the Wednesday is silent, as are the d’s in: badge ledge wedge bridge fridge and sludge.
You sound the d in hand but the d is silent in the word handsome, handkerchief or the d in sandwich. The only silent d’s at the front of a word that I know of are djinn (a jinn or kind of genie) and the name Djanjo.

f) The sound of “f” has several spellings. The most confusing f sound is the f sound in the word of, the f says a v sound. Reading can be made difficult to understand unless someone points out the irregularities;
Then we have f spelled with gh and ph. The f sound is easily produced by placing the top front teeth on the bottom lip and blowing the sound that you hear in regular f words like:
Fish food four five fourteen forty frog fox fly flea leaf afraid off gh spellings of words that have an f sound. Words such as:
laugh tough rough cough enough trough
Because the English Language has so many irregularities, children are confused when they see a gh spelling only to find that the gh is silent:
high sigh eight weigh right fight sight fought straight freight weight
daughter slaughter taught caught bought brought thought through
Now the final nail in the coffin, gh spelling where the h in gh is silent.
ghost ghastly ghetto spaghetti

g) The letter g has several sounds that must be taught. The letters C and G have a Hard and Soft Sound. I gave a few examples of a Soft C when I explained the C sounds. Since both C and G follow the same rule, when the letters C and G are followed by the vowels A O and U, the sound is a hard sound. As in cat cot cut and soft in words like cent city circus.

When the letter G is followed by A O or G the sound is hard as in:
game go gum gal goal grumble grammar good goat glass
When the letter G is followed by an E or I the sounds is soft as in:
gent gentle genie gem genie germ genius age nudge fudge Gerry
ginger giant engine gist gym gymnasium giraffe gibberish digit
When the letter G is silent as in:
gnu gnat sign gnash align assign gnib gnostic impugn lasagna
campaign foreign mignon design malign resign sovereign vignette

h) h is an easy sound to produce vocally but is confusing to learning to read or spell. To produce the sound of ‘h’, open the jaw and breathe a h sound as in words like:
hat hit hot hut how horse hawk hamster halibut hippo hyena
Words that begin h but the h is silent, as in:
honor honory honest honestly hour hourly herb heirs heiress
Words with rh spellings and the ‘h’ is silent. Words such as:
rhyme rhythm rhubarb rhinoceros rhapsody Rhode Island
aghast caught thigh ghost echo what when where
Then there are words spelled with the final h as silent and sounding short u or e: hurrah cheetah moolah fellah bah blah hah yeh yeah ooh

j) This is the same sound that you taught with the Soft Sound of G. To produce this sound, perch the mouth as though you where to kiss, then place the top of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth and the tip of the tongue below the gumline of the bottom teeth. The lips should push forward as your pronounce words such as:
jump joy Jack jackal jaguar jellyfish jackrabbit jerboa junko

k) See c/k/ck as discussed as the sound of C. There are several words with the spelling of the letter k in which the K is silent. Words such as:

knife knit knob knot knock knee knoll know
knuckle knead knack knickers kneel knack knight knowledge

l) The letter l is a maturation sound that many primary reading students may have difficulty in pronouncing. Ask your child to repeat this sentence, “Little Lily likes lollipops.” If there is a problem such a little being pronounced as “widdow”, then demonstrate the sound of l by opening your lips, pressing the bottom part of the tongue to back of the top front teeth and start the sound of l with the sound of o͝o (as in book) and then stretch this sound for your child to hear. You should feel a slight tightening of the stomach muscles.
Repeat the l sound as o͝ollll, then say words such as wool, pull, full, wolf, lick, like, love, and the word little, etc.
L is silent in words such as walk, talk, chalk, calf, half, calm, palm and psalm.

m) To produce the m sound, press the lips together and hum the sound of M. As in words like mom momma mamma ham hammer jam lamb Sam

n) To produce the sound of an n, the lips are apart, the tongue is placed to the roof the mouth and you use a similar humming sound as you did with the letter m, as in words such as:
no not nod now need nut nothing new nab nap nip
The n is silent as in autumn hymn column condemn damn solemn

p) This sound is similar to b and d. The lips are pressed together and the p is breathed out as in:
pop pip pup pep put pie pull push park
There are silent letter p’s as in receipt psalm pneumonia psychology

q) This letter is usually spelled along with the letter u. To make this sound, Perch the lips as to kiss, start with a c/k sound, followed with a short u sound as in: quick quiet quench quote quit quite question Iraq quack quiz quarter quad quail quake qualm Quebec.

r) Another sound that many children have difficulty in pronouncing, I call it the wabbit as in rabbit sound. I recommend your teach a child with an r pronunciation problem to repeat words ending with Ũr> as in her.
Words such as: letter better sweater singer pitcher catcher harder, etc.
When the Ũr sound is controlled, say words beginning with an r, as ur/red ur/run ur/real ur/rabbit ur/rat ur/ram ur/ram ur/real ur/really
The letter r in February is silent.

s) S is easily pronounced. With lips apart, the top of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth and the slides of the tongue slightly between the back molars, hiss out the sound of ess as in: silly sally sings silly songs.
Tongue thrusters that produce a th for ess require speech therapy.
The s is silent in words such as: isle island debris aisle.

t) T is produced by placing the tip of the tongue to the gumline above the top front teeth and releasing the tongue immediately upon producing the t sound as in: tot top tip tap hot lot rot sat sit set pet pot hot hog the is silent in words like:
listen whistle ballet asthma

v) The sound of v is made by placing the bottom of the upper front teeth on the bottom lip and blowing air between the teeth and lower lip as in:
velvet chevvy shivvy revved achieve above anvil vigor vine vineger

w) Perch the lips as to kiss and breathe a whu sound as in words like:
which witch watch wish wash water window will willow won wonder
There are lots of words with a silent w, Words such as:
two who write sword wrap answer wrestle wrinkle wrong wrist wrack wren wrench

x) The sound of x (ec/ks) is produced with jaws apart and the back of the tongue touching the back part of the roof of the mouth. Start the sound with short e as in Ed, then add the ck/s to produce words like:
axe tax taxi wax ox oxen box fox axle axis fix fixes fax mix max pix xray(e/ks/ray) e/ks/pose example exactly expect example except

y) The letter y is produced with a long e beginning sound as in ē/yellow ē/yes ē/you ē/youth ē/young ē/year ē/yield ē/yearn

z) This sound of the letter zed is usually pronounced as zee. When making the zzz sound.
The lips are apart and the tongue is pressed between the back teeth and pushing to the roof of the mouth. The tongue releases, much the same as when producing the sound of ess, as in:

freeze bronze hazard amazon breeze sneeze frozen puzzle
muzzle blaze size quiz zombie zipper zigzag zebra
zealous agonize bazar blazer booze blizzard buzz dizzy

Consonant Blends

Now that all consonants can be pronounced automatically, your child is ready to learn consonant blends to the value of double and triple blends. A blend is composed of one consonant joined to another consonant that becomes a blend, as b + l = bl joined together as in words such as:

bl - blab blob blot blog blow bless blame blink block bland blush
br - brat brag breeze brown brass brain brink brave brash brush
cl - clip clop clam clamp clown class cloth clothes clink clock clash
cr - crab crop cramp crown criss cross crawl crave craft crease crush
dr - drip drop drag dragon drown dress drain drink drank drunk draft
fl - flip flop flap freeze flesh floor flame flash flock flare flush
fr - Fred Frank Friday French frown frost fresh fruit frock friend fresh
gl - glad glow shove globe glass gloom glee glide glare glove
gr - grip grass grow grand green groom groove grin grave grade gray
pl - play plus plug plan plant plural please place plot plate pluck
pr - price pride pretty proper practice prom prompt promise problem
sc - scam scan scalp scar scare score scab scale scarf school scoop
scr - scrap scrape scram scrub script scratch scream scrabble scroll screen
sl - slip slap sled slim slum slow sleep slept slid slide slice slash slick sloth
sm - smart smog small smack smooth smell smile smooch smoke smother
sn - snow snake snob snail snug snag snip snap snack snore sneak sniff
sp - spell spoon spider spin spine speak speech sponge speed space spill
spl - split splint splinter splash splendor splice spleen splatter splendid
spr - spring sprang sprung sprain spray sprint spark splish/splash
st - stop start still star stamp stomp stick stuck stupid stare stand store
str - street stream strong strength straight strand stride struggle stranger
sw - swell swing swim swift swill swamp swish sweep sweat swine swoop
tr - tree trap trip track truck trick trunk trade train treat trail trash treasure

Ending Consonant and Digraphs (such wd words as: crowd lewd bawd)

Grade one consonant endings, some of which were found in the endings of the blends exercise. To begin with, when a word has one syllable with one short vowel as in s, l, f, or z, double the final consonant as in words such as:
ass bass lass pass miss kiss boss loss toss floss scoff cliff sniff whiff whiff cuff stuff ball small doll huff gruff ball tall small, puff fess guess press harass gaff gull, bill pill still, well swell, dull gull bull buzz fuzz fizz whizz jazz, useless, guess mess bless recess chess truss lawless gross gloss actress canvass access assess caress abyss awarenesss

Basic Consonant and Digraph Endings

ck - Jack lock clock back chick thick crack pack rack stack pick stick trick
ct - duct conduct expect erect select extinct
ft - left cleft deft draft craft shaft shift thrift
ht - borscht klepht
it - fruit admit orbit submit omit remit habit
ld - cold fold gold held meld field shield
lf - elf alf half calf wolf golf self delf
lm - balm embalm calm realm psalm
lp - help yelp scalp pulp gulp
lt - salt fault insult consult result felt melt belt wilt spilt
mb - The letter b is silent as in bomb lamb limb dumb thumb
mp - jump camp lamp champ clamp stamp lump stump bump hump grump
nd - and hand sand stand grand mind find blind grind friend gerund
ng - wing king sing sang song cling bring sting swing wrong mustang
nk - monk monkey skunk shrunk clunk honk bank rank sank blank crank
nt - mountain front sent consent went burnt distant elephant giant
pt - kept slept wept empt empty tempt concept
rd - lord sword hard guard lizard wizard
rk - fork pork jerk work clerk lark spark
rm - arm farm worm germ storm stormy form inform firm infirm alarm
rn - horn corn scorn burn turn intern modern govern western
rp - harp sharp carp burp chirp slurp twirp
rt - Albert flirt squirt convert invert revert skirt shirt
sk - desk cask mask task flask risk brisk frisk dusk husk musk tusk
sp - asp wasp wisp gasp rasp grasp cusp
st - first last lisp trust blast test resist must crust most insist exhaust
thm - rhythm algorithm
tz - waltz quartz spitz shmaltz kibbitz blitz fritz hertz klutz
wl - awl owl fowl howl growl scowl prowl bowl crawl brawl scrawl
wn - fawn lawn dawn drawn known flown thrown shown
ch - couch touch punch lunch crunch fetch hatch leech
sh - wish bush brush crush blush flourish sluggish diminish
th - earth seventh twelfth math death froth sloth health wealth stealth